The book consists of desk research and reporting on the surveys and polls that have been conducted on the issues of self- determination in Macedonia, Crimea, and Bougainville. International Communities Organisation (ICO) aims to provide insight into how the on-going conflict and self-determination is seen by the local people. The content of this summary report does not reflect the official opinion of the ICO.
Before carrying out the online desk research, we identified and arranged the previous survey and pools that need research in order to get a complete picture. Then existing information sources were analysed for any previous data that available, which is closely related to the issues of self- determination in Macedonia, Crimea, and Bougainville. Furthermore, survey and polls obtained, were compared the same data from various sources to validate its accuracy and were considered only reliable and trusted websites before constructing into a usable multiple-report.

Please access the ICO book here.

Notes from the ICO Secretary-General


From the 20-22nd March 2018, the Lichtenstein Foundation for self-determination held a conference at Triesenberg. The discussion between academics, mediators, and diplomats was aimed at considering new and innovative ways of thinking about self-determination. The conference cited the many conflicts within and between states and the conference sought to explore the ongoing tensions between the Principles of self-determination and territorial integrity, to explore ways of reconciling the two and to consider the possibilities for innovative application of the right to self-determination as a tool for conflict prevention and resolution.

The work of the Leichestein Institute and in particular this conference has inspired and guided the work of the International Communities Organisation. One of the outcomes of the Conference was a goal to “Invest in Surveys and Polls about the views of local populations in territories with self-determination aspirations, especially those affected by violence in an attempt to amplify their voice in settlement negotiations.”

Public opinion where it can be both clearly defined and clearly communicated in very Powerful. This can be seen in Brexit where the Public voted to leave despite most political leaders urging the country to stay or the Northern Ireland Peace Process where political leaders were driven on in negotiations because of an overwhelming desire of the Populations of the Island of Ireland for peace. In most self-determination issues, it is often the Public who will ultimately decide and this can be seen in Quebec where the Public voted to remain in Canada despite the message of much of the political leadership and external players and most recently in Catalonia where the Central government’s insistence on the rule of law and adherence to the constitution Is at the time of writing being gradually worn down by the will of the Catalonian People.

The impact of public opinion will be influenced not only by how decisive the Public feel and how well this can be communicated but who by their relationship to the political leadership, the seriousness of the issue under consideration andwhether the public gets to vote. Nevertheless, leaders, even those unelected or nominally elected will need to carry the Peoples if their policies are to be successful and to do this they need to know what their People want, expect or will allow. History is littered with views being ignored and leaders being voted out or chased out of their Palaces where this is ignored.

One of the aims of the International Communities Organisation going forward is to give the Public the tools that are needed to make their voices known and make sure they are shared and in doing so, try to give People a real say in and influence over self-determination issues.

I would like to thank the whole team for their work and efforts in pulling together this publication and in particular Micael Stam as the lead researcher and writer. The report looks at the polls and surveys in Macedonia, Crimea, and Bougainville. Readers will see how these polls have influenced the course of each of the areas covered.

James Holmes

ICO Secretary-General

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