When you search Bougainville in a web browser, the first thing you access would probably be photos of the beautiful island, and then the words like armed conflict, civil war, independence, peace agreement, or referendum appear. The Autonomous Region of Bougainville in the Solomon Sea, southwestern Pacific, has a population of about 230,000 people.

Between 1988 and 1998, the Bougainville Civil War has taken thousands of lives. A multinational Peace Monitoring Group (PMG) led by Australia was deployed and Papua New Guinea signed a peace agreement with Bougainville.

Today, Bougainville is now due to having a referendum on whether to become independent next year.

Although it seems that we have unlimited access to information, we still have to perform a meticulous exploration in order to find the ‘right’ information, recognise fake news and must read different perspectives. Therefore, ICO Research Centre has collected the research and discussions on Bougainville for your consideration*:

Bougainville Literature

AuthorTitlePublished ByTypeYearLink
Edited by Anthony J Regan And Helga M GriffinBougainville
Before The Conflict
Pandanus Books, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies,
The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 Australia
Book2005Link - Open Access
Anthony J. ReganBougainville:
Large-scale Mining and
Risks of Conflict Recurrence
Australian National UniversityJournal article2014 Link - Open Access
Sinclair Dinnen
Anita Jowitt
Tess Newton
A Kind of Mending
Restorative Justice in the Pacific Islands
Australian National University PressBook2010Link - Open Access
Anthony Hooper

Culture and Sustainable Development in the PacificAustralian National University PressJournal Article2005Link- Open Access
Anthony J. Regan in Sinclair Dinnen, Roy May and Anthony Regan (eds), Challenging the State: the Sandline Affair in Papua New GuineaPreparation Forward And Progress
Towards Peace-Bougainville
Dimensions Of The Sandline Affair
The Australian National University
Book1997Link- Open Access
Jack LinnettGrievances in Bougainville: Analysing the
Impact of Natural Resources in Conflict
Polis JournalJournal Article2009Link - Open Access
Jo WoodburyThe Bougainville Independence Referendum:
Assessing The Risks And Challenges Before,
During And After The Referendum
The Centre for Defence and Strategic Studies Australian Defence CollegeJournal Article2015Link - Open Access
Yaw SaffuThe Bougainville Crisis and Politics
in Papua New Guinea
University of Hawaii PressJournal Article1992Link - Open Access
Helen Hakena, Peter Ninnes, Bert A. Jenkins. (Editors)Ngo’s And Post Conflict Recovery: The Leitana Nehan Women's Development Agency, BougainvilleAustralia National University PressBook2006Link - Open Access
Michael Cornish

The Bougainville conflict: A classic outcome of the resource-curse effect?Online Forum for Informed Debate and Peace Journalism2010Link - Open Access

*These are the views of the authors and do not represent the views of  International Communities Organisation

* The collection of literature is conducted by ICO Project Worker, Gabriel Okereafor (LLM Human Rights, University of East London).

Do you think there are more to read regarding the case of Bougainville? Please email us your recommended literature including news and reports.

Do you want to contribute the research on Bougainville and self-determination? Feel free to  e-mail your ideas and blog posts to [email protected]

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